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Abnormal Anal Pap Smear, Dysplasia & Anal Cancer
PLATO - PersonaLising Anal cancer radioTherapy dOse - Health Research Authority
The dominant etiology is infection with human papilloma virus HPV , which is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Vaccines directed against oncogenic HPV serotypes exist, and their utility for preventing anal neoplasia is under investigation. Additional risk factors for developing SCC include HIV infection, anal receptive intercourse, smoking, and immunosuppression. Patients with known anal intraepithelial neoplasia AIN must be carefully screened with periodic digital rectal exam and anoscopy.
Stages and types
The CAP Cancer Reporting Protocols provide guidelines for collecting the essential data elements for complete reporting of malignant tumors and optimal patient care. The CAP Biomarker Reporting Protocols are intended to provide reporting guidance for commonly ordered biomarkers and are not required for accreditation purposes. Highlights include:.
This randomized phase II clinical trial studies how well nivolumab after combined modality therapy works in treating patients with high risk stage II-IIIB anal cancer. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. The primary objective of this trial is to evaluate whether therapy with nivolumab following combined modality therapy CMT improves disease-free survival DFS compared with observation in patients with high risk anal carcinoma. Make a difference in the fight against cancer by donating to cancer research. Call us anytime.